• London

    What's coming in the London Hardfork?

    Looking at all the details of the upcoming fork

    The Berlin Hardfork only just went live on April 14th after block 12,224,00. Next up will be the London Hardfork in July which will include EIP-1559 and is scheduled for July 14th (no exact block decided yet). So let's take a look at the new changes and what you need to know as a developer....

  • Computer Deployment Terminal

    The Ultimate Ethereum Mainnet Deployment Guide

    All you need to know to deploy to the Ethereum mainnet

    We all love Ethereum, so you've built some great smart contracts. They are tested intensely with unit-tests and on testnets. Now it's finally time to go to mainnet. But this is a tricky business... 1. What exactly is a deployment transaction? First let's quickly discuss what a contract deployment...

  • Sushi

    SushiSwap Explained!

    Looking at the implementation details of SushiSwap

    You've probably heard of SushiSwap by now. The Uniswap fork brought new features like staking and governance to the exchange. But how exactly are the contracts behind it working? It's actually not too difficult. Knowing how this works in detail will be a great way to learn about Solidity and...

  • Solidity Overview

    Solidity Fast Track 2: Continue Learning Solidity Fast

    Continuing to learn Solidity fast with the advanced basics

    Previously we learned all of the basics in 20 minutes . If you are a complete beginner, start there and then come back here. Now we'll explore some more advanced concepts, but again as fast as possible. 1. Saving money with events We all know gas prices are out of control right now, so it's more...

  • Berlin

    What's coming in the Berlin Hardfork?

    Looking at all the details of the upcoming fork

    The Berlin Hardfork is scheduled for April 14th after block 12,224,00. Later to be followed by the London Hardfork in July which will include EIP-1559 . So let's take a look at the new changes and what you need to know as a developer. EIP-2929: Increased gas costs for state access EIP-2929 will...

  • Gas

    Using 1inch ChiGas tokens to reduce transaction costs

    What are gas tokens and example usage for Uniswap v2

    Gas prices have been occasionally above 1000 Gwei in the past in peak times. Given an ETH price of over 1000 USD, this can lead to insane real transaction costs. In particular this can be a pain when using onchain DEX's like Uniswap, resulting in hundreds of dollars transaction fees for a single...

  • Zeppelin

    Openzeppelin Contracts v4 in Review

    Taking a look at the new Openzeppelin v4 Release

    The Openzeppelin v4 contracts are now available in Beta and most notably come with Solidity 0.8 support. For older compiler versions, you'll need to stick with the older contract versions. The beta tag means there still might be small breaking changes coming for the final v4 version, but you can...

  • Loan

    EIP-3156: Creating a standard for Flash Loans

    A new standard for flash loans unifying the interface + wrappers for existing ecosystems

    As we've discussed last week, flash loans are a commonly used pattern for hacks. But what exactly are they and how are they implemented in the contracts? As of right now each protocol has its own way of implementing flash loans. With EIP-3156 we will get a standardized interface. The standard was...

  • Zero

    Tornado.cash: A story of anonymity and zk-SNARKs

    What is Tornado.cash, how to use it and the future

    With the recent Yearn vault v1 hack from just a few days ago, we can see a new pattern of hacks emerging: Get anonymous ETH via tornado.cash . Use the ETH to pay for the hack transaction(s). Use a flash loan to decrease capital requirements. Create some imbalances given the large capital and...

  • Roulette Game

    High Stakes Roulette on Ethereum

    Learn by Example: Building a secure High Stakes Roulette

    It's always best to learn with examples. So let's build a little online casino on the blockchain. We'll also make it secure enough to allow playing in really high stakes by adding a secure randomness generator. Let's discuss the overall design first. Designing the contract Before we program...

  • Meta Transaction

    How to implement generalized meta transactions

    We'll explore a powerful design for meta transactions based on 0x

    Enabling meta transactions inside your contract is a powerful addition. Requiring users to hold ETH to pay for gas has always been and still is one of the biggest user onboarding challenges. Who knows how many more people would be using Ethereum right now if it was just a simple click? But...

  • Map

    Utilizing Bitmaps to dramatically save on Gas

    A simple pattern which can save you a lot of money

    As you may know the most expensive operation in Ethereum is storing data ( SSTORE ). So you should always look for ways to reduce the storage requirements. Let's explore a particularly useful one: Bitmaps. How to implement a simple Bitmap Let's assume we want to store 10 boolean values. Usually...

  • Uniswap

    Using the new Uniswap v2 as oracle in your contracts

    How does the Uniswap v2 oracle function and how to integrate with it

    We've covered Uniswap previously here . But let's go through the basics first again. What is UniSwap? If you're not familiar with Uniswap yet, it's a fully decentralized protocol for automated liquidity provision on Ethereum. An easier-to-understand description would be that it's a decentralized...

  • People making fun

    Smock: The powerful mocking tool for Hardhat

    Features of smock and how to use them with examples

    We’ve covered mocking contracts before , but now there’s an additional great tool available: smock . It simplifies the mocking process greatly and also gives you more testing power. You’ll be able to change the return values for functions as well as changing internal contract storage directly!...